Relationship Between Kaizen, Toyota Production System (TPS) & Lean
Kaizen & TWI
The concept, tools & techniques of Kaizen originates from a program known as Training Within Industry (TWI). The Training Within Industry (TWI) service was created by the USA government during World War 2 to provide consulting services to war-related industries to cope with the shortage of trained and skilled personnel of these industries.
After World War 2, to help restore Japan, TWI was brought in to Japan to help with the rebuilding of Japanese industry. A training film produced to introduce the TWI program title: “Improvement in 4 Steps” (Kaizen eno Yon Dankai), and “Kaizen” as a continuous improvement methodology was introduced to Japan.
(Note: the creation only refers to the usage of ”Kaizen” as a a continuous improvement methodology, Kaizen(改善) existed as two regular Japanese words of the Japanese language even before the introduction of TWI ).
TWI & Toyota Production System (TPS)
The introduction of TWI formed the basis of the kaizen culture in Japanese industry. One particular company that has embrace TWI & benefited from it was Toyota Motor Corporation. TWI had a direct impact on the development and use of Kaizen and Standard Work at Toyota. These fundamental elements are embedded within the functional system at Toyota and Job Instruction is taught and used within Toyota.
Beyond TWI, Toyota continued to fine-tuned the concept of Kaizen), using the science of Industrial Engineering as its leverage and later developed its own management system known as The Toyota Production System (TPS). The key contributors to the development of the Toyota Production System (TPS) are Taiichi Ohno, Shigeo Shingo, Eiji Toyoda, Sakichi Toyoda, and Kiichiro Toyoda.
Toyota Production System (TPS) & Lean
In 1990s James P. Womack conducted a study of the the Toyota Production System (TPS) and published the book “The Machine That Changed the World” and later “Lean Thinking”. Inside the book he used the term “Lean Production“ to describe the Toyota Production System (TPS). The term “Lean “was well received by the world and is known worldwide till this day.